Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Lattice FiltersFiltering Functions

Functions

void arm_fir_lattice_f32 (const arm_fir_lattice_instance_f32 *S, float32_t *pSrc, float32_t *pDst, uint32_t blockSize)
 Processing function for the floating-point FIR lattice filter.
 
void arm_fir_lattice_init_f32 (arm_fir_lattice_instance_f32 *S, uint16_t numStages, float32_t *pCoeffs, float32_t *pState)
 Initialization function for the floating-point FIR lattice filter.
 
void arm_fir_lattice_init_q15 (arm_fir_lattice_instance_q15 *S, uint16_t numStages, q15_t *pCoeffs, q15_t *pState)
 Initialization function for the Q15 FIR lattice filter.
 
void arm_fir_lattice_init_q31 (arm_fir_lattice_instance_q31 *S, uint16_t numStages, q31_t *pCoeffs, q31_t *pState)
 Initialization function for the Q31 FIR lattice filter.
 
void arm_fir_lattice_q15 (const arm_fir_lattice_instance_q15 *S, q15_t *pSrc, q15_t *pDst, uint32_t blockSize)
 Processing function for the Q15 FIR lattice filter.
 
void arm_fir_lattice_q31 (const arm_fir_lattice_instance_q31 *S, q31_t *pSrc, q31_t *pDst, uint32_t blockSize)
 Processing function for the Q31 FIR lattice filter.
 

Description

This set of functions implements Finite Impulse Response (FIR) lattice filters for Q15, Q31 and floating-point data types. Lattice filters are used in a variety of adaptive filter applications. The filter structure is feedforward and the net impulse response is finite length. The functions operate on blocks of input and output data and each call to the function processes blockSize samples through the filter. pSrc and pDst point to input and output arrays containing blockSize values.

Algorithm:
FIRLattice.gif
Finite Impulse Response Lattice filter
The following difference equation is implemented:
    f0[n] = g0[n] = x[n]
    fm[n] = fm-1[n] + km * gm-1[n-1] for m = 1, 2, ...M
    gm[n] = km * fm-1[n] + gm-1[n-1] for m = 1, 2, ...M
    y[n] = fM[n]
 
pCoeffs points to tha array of reflection coefficients of size numStages. Reflection Coefficients are stored in the following order.
    {k1, k2, ..., kM}
 
where M is number of stages
pState points to a state array of size numStages. The state variables (g values) hold previous inputs and are stored in the following order.
    {g0[n], g1[n], g2[n] ...gM-1[n]}
 
The state variables are updated after each block of data is processed; the coefficients are untouched.
Instance Structure
The coefficients and state variables for a filter are stored together in an instance data structure. A separate instance structure must be defined for each filter. Coefficient arrays may be shared among several instances while state variable arrays cannot be shared. There are separate instance structure declarations for each of the 3 supported data types.
Initialization Functions
There is also an associated initialization function for each data type. The initialization function performs the following operations:
  • Sets the values of the internal structure fields.
  • Zeros out the values in the state buffer. To do this manually without calling the init function, assign the follow subfields of the instance structure: numStages, pCoeffs, pState. Also set all of the values in pState to zero.
Use of the initialization function is optional. However, if the initialization function is used, then the instance structure cannot be placed into a const data section. To place an instance structure into a const data section, the instance structure must be manually initialized. Set the values in the state buffer to zeros and then manually initialize the instance structure as follows:
arm_fir_lattice_instance_f32 S = {numStages, pState, pCoeffs};
arm_fir_lattice_instance_q31 S = {numStages, pState, pCoeffs};
arm_fir_lattice_instance_q15 S = {numStages, pState, pCoeffs};
 
where numStages is the number of stages in the filter; pState is the address of the state buffer; pCoeffs is the address of the coefficient buffer.
Fixed-Point Behavior
Care must be taken when using the fixed-point versions of the FIR Lattice filter functions. In particular, the overflow and saturation behavior of the accumulator used in each function must be considered. Refer to the function specific documentation below for usage guidelines.

Function Documentation

void arm_fir_lattice_f32 ( const arm_fir_lattice_instance_f32 S,
float32_t pSrc,
float32_t pDst,
uint32_t  blockSize 
)
Parameters
[in]*Spoints to an instance of the floating-point FIR lattice structure.
[in]*pSrcpoints to the block of input data.
[out]*pDstpoints to the block of output data
[in]blockSizenumber of samples to process.
Returns
none.

References blockSize, arm_fir_lattice_instance_f32::numStages, arm_fir_lattice_instance_f32::pCoeffs, and arm_fir_lattice_instance_f32::pState.

void arm_fir_lattice_init_f32 ( arm_fir_lattice_instance_f32 S,
uint16_t  numStages,
float32_t pCoeffs,
float32_t pState 
)
Parameters
[in]*Spoints to an instance of the floating-point FIR lattice structure.
[in]numStagesnumber of filter stages.
[in]*pCoeffspoints to the coefficient buffer. The array is of length numStages.
[in]*pStatepoints to the state buffer. The array is of length numStages.
Returns
none.

References arm_fir_lattice_instance_f32::numStages, arm_fir_lattice_instance_f32::pCoeffs, and arm_fir_lattice_instance_f32::pState.

void arm_fir_lattice_init_q15 ( arm_fir_lattice_instance_q15 S,
uint16_t  numStages,
q15_t pCoeffs,
q15_t pState 
)
Parameters
[in]*Spoints to an instance of the Q15 FIR lattice structure.
[in]numStagesnumber of filter stages.
[in]*pCoeffspoints to the coefficient buffer. The array is of length numStages.
[in]*pStatepoints to the state buffer. The array is of length numStages.
Returns
none.

References arm_fir_lattice_instance_q15::numStages, arm_fir_lattice_instance_q15::pCoeffs, and arm_fir_lattice_instance_q15::pState.

void arm_fir_lattice_init_q31 ( arm_fir_lattice_instance_q31 S,
uint16_t  numStages,
q31_t pCoeffs,
q31_t pState 
)
Parameters
[in]*Spoints to an instance of the Q31 FIR lattice structure.
[in]numStagesnumber of filter stages.
[in]*pCoeffspoints to the coefficient buffer. The array is of length numStages.
[in]*pStatepoints to the state buffer. The array is of length numStages.
Returns
none.

References arm_fir_lattice_instance_q31::numStages, arm_fir_lattice_instance_q31::pCoeffs, and arm_fir_lattice_instance_q31::pState.

void arm_fir_lattice_q15 ( const arm_fir_lattice_instance_q15 S,
q15_t pSrc,
q15_t pDst,
uint32_t  blockSize 
)
Parameters
[in]*Spoints to an instance of the Q15 FIR lattice structure.
[in]*pSrcpoints to the block of input data.
[out]*pDstpoints to the block of output data
[in]blockSizenumber of samples to process.
Returns
none.

References __PKHBT, __SIMD32, blockSize, arm_fir_lattice_instance_q15::numStages, arm_fir_lattice_instance_q15::pCoeffs, and arm_fir_lattice_instance_q15::pState.

void arm_fir_lattice_q31 ( const arm_fir_lattice_instance_q31 S,
q31_t pSrc,
q31_t pDst,
uint32_t  blockSize 
)
Parameters
[in]*Spoints to an instance of the Q31 FIR lattice structure.
[in]*pSrcpoints to the block of input data.
[out]*pDstpoints to the block of output data
[in]blockSizenumber of samples to process.
Returns
none.

Scaling and Overflow Behavior: In order to avoid overflows the input signal must be scaled down by 2*log2(numStages) bits.

References blockSize, arm_fir_lattice_instance_q31::numStages, arm_fir_lattice_instance_q31::pCoeffs, and arm_fir_lattice_instance_q31::pState.